Tag Archive: invention

   

Who invented Newspaper

newspaperWhile some form of information sharing within smaller groups is recorded in ancient times, these publications did not fully meet the classical criteria for how newspapers are known today.  It is so as these were restrictive both in terms of information and the audience.

First known Newspapers:

The Roman Acta Diurna for example, appearing around 59 BC, is the earliest recorded “newspaper”, published on the orders of Julius Caesar, who wanted to inform the public about important social and political happenings, and upcoming events. The bulletins were carved in metal or stone or written on large white boards to be subsequently posted in key public places.

Another example is China government-produced handwritten news-sheets, called Tipao, which were circulated among court officials during the late Han dynasty (second and third centuries AD).

The modern Newspaper:

The invention of printing press in 1447 by Johann Gutenberg ushered in the era of the modern newspaper.  It was in the first half of the 17th century that newspapers began to appear as regular publications. It is Europe and the nation of Germany in particular that is credited with publishing the first modern newspaper (Relation in 1605), followed by France (Gazette in 1631), Belgium (Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616) and England (the London Gazette in 1665 – still published as a court journal). However, all these publications consisted of news items primarily from Europe, and occasionally from America or Asia.  Newspaper content also remained largely censored all this while.  Sweden became the first country in 1776 to pass a law protecting press freedom, which was later on adopted by most other nations.

Over the years, the newspaper has evolved thanks to the technology advancements.  The development of continuous rolls of paper, printing on both sides of the page, telecommunications, satellite transmission, advertisement selling, etc., have ushered in a new era for the newspaper.  The advent and universal popularity of the internet has ensured that newspapers, both national and international, are now available on your computer screen much before the tangible one is delivered at your door.

   

Who Invented Zero

Zero is synonym for the word none, meaning nothing, but zero plays a very important factor in our daily life and has great importance in mathematics and other subjects. The origin or invention of zero seems a bit mysterious as there are many claims and stories behind its first existence or invention and to properly unwind this sotry you need to go all the way back  to the 3rd century BC.

Zero may have no value when you see it as a single character, but when it is added to other characters, it can totally change the meaning and worth.

Let’s go and take a sneak peak into history for the origin of zero:

 

Who Invented Zero

 

Arabs: They were not the inventor but they brought zero with them to Europe.

Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al Khwarizmi , the great mathematician, astronomer, geographer and influential in the formation of algebra and who was borned in 780 (died in 850 CE) had something meangingful to share regardind the concept of zero.

Al Khwarizmi explained the use of zero. He introduced the Indian system of numerals, commonly known as the Arabic numeral system,  which through his work was introduced first to the Arabs through translations and later introduced to the west.

Al Khwarizmi one book which was later translated in early twelth century into Latin was basically focusing on arithematics and was called “Kitab al Jam’a wal – Tafreeq bil Hisaab al Hindi” (“The Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation”).

Al Khwarizmi was not the inventor of zero but rather he promote and explained zero.

Romans and Greeks: They were using ABACUS for all there calculations and therefore did not rely on  or  have a need for zero.

European: The people of Europe in those very early days were literally in the Dark Ages in many ways. They only came to know about the concept of zero when they performed trade with the Arab  in 8th Century. The Arabs were, as we mentioned above, guided and trained by Al Khwarizmi.

[box type="info"] Now we are left with two civilizations whom a lot of historians are claiming to be the founder of zero.  Some  experts also believe that zero was develop in both places at the same time but the symbols they employed were different.[/box]


Mayan:
Mayan civilization whose existence was in Central America in the 3rd Centruy BC have claimed to be using Dot as a symbol for the modern zero.

Indian: Indian mathematician and astronomer, Aryabhata, around 9th century C.E is considered to be the founder of Zero. There is no doubt from Al Khwarizmi work and other Arabs scholars that this area was quite rich in knowledge. Inf act “Sindh” which is a province of Pakistan, was considered “Bab-Ul-Islam” and people from Arab use to come to this region to gain knowledge. Pakistan and India were one country before 1947.

Also some historian believe that the word “Shunya” (Which is an Indian word for zero) was translated in Arabic as “Sifr” meaning nothing. The arabic word “Sifr” was later translated to “Zephyr” in Latin and then it was evolved to the recent word “Zero”.

 

 

Image credit: lwr